Sunday, March 23, 2008

Other (semi-successful) Claimants to the Throne

For the Record, the following have also applied:
(I still, though have a soft spot for the Emperor Halle Selassie. How could Bob have got it wrong?)

Jewish messiah claimants

The Jewish Messiah originally meant a divinely-appointed king; David, Cyrus the Great, and Alexander the Great[1] are examples of such. Later, especially after the failure of Bar Kokhba's revolt, it came to represent a figure who would deliver the Jews from oppression and usher in a new world.

Simon (ca. 4 BC), a former slave of Herod the Great who rebelled.
Athronges (ca. 3 BC)
Judas of Galilee (?), son of Hezekiah/Ezekias, a member of the Zealots faction who led a bloody revolt against a Roman census in AD 6. (JA18)
Jesus of Nazareth (ca. 4 BC - AD 30-?), a wandering prophet and teacher who was crucified by the Romans; Jews who believed him to be the Messiah were the first Christians, also known as Jewish Christians.
Theudas (? - 46), who attempted a short-lived revolt against the Romans before being slain. (JA20.5.1)
"Egyptian Prophet", c.55, (an allusion to Moses[citation needed]), with 30,000 unarmed Jews doing The Exodus reenactment massacred by Procurator Antonius Felix (JW2.13.5, JA20.8.6, Acts 21:38)[2]
Menahem ben Judah (?), allegedly son of Judas of Galilee, partook in a revolt against Agrippa II before being slain by a rival Zealot leader.
Vespasian, c.70, according to Josephus[3]
Simon bar Kokhba (?- ca. 135), founded a short-lived Jewish state before being defeated in the Second Jewish-Roman War.
Moses of Crete (?), who in about 440-470, convinced the Jews of Crete to attempt to walk into the sea to return to Israel; he disappeared after that disaster.
Ishak ben Ya'kub Obadiah Abu 'Isa al-Isfahani (684-705), who led a revolt in Persia against the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.
Yudghan (?), a disciple of Abu 'Isa who continued the faith after Isa was slain.
Serene (?), who around 720 claimed to be the Messiah and advocated expulsion of Muslims and relaxing various rabbinic laws before being arrested; he then recanted.
David Alroy (?), born in Kurdistan, who around 1160 agitated against the caliph before being assassinated.
Nissim ben Abraham (?), active around 1295.
Moses Botarel of Cisneros (?), active around 1413; claimed to be a sorcerer able to combine the names of God.
Asher Lemmlein (?), a German near Venice who proclaimed himself a forerunner of the Messiah in 1502.
David Reubeni (1490-1541?) and Solomon Molcho (1500-1532), adventurers who travelled in Portugal, Italy, and Turkey; Molcho was eventually burned at the stake by the Pope.
A mostly unknown Czech Jew from around the 1650s.[4]
Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676), an Ottoman Jew who claimed to be the Messiah, but then converted to Islam; still has followers today in the Donmeh.
Barukhia Russo (Osman Baba), successor of Sabbatai Zevi.
Jacob Querido (?-1690), claimed to be the new incarnation of Sabbatai; later converted to Islam and led the Donmeh.
Miguel Cardoso (1630-1706), another successor of Sabbatai who claimed to be the "Messiah ben Ephraim."
Mordecai Mokia (1650-1729), "the Rebuker," another person who proclaimed himself Messiah after Sabbatai's death.
Löbele Prossnitz (?-1750), a proven fraud who nevertheless attained some following amongst former followers of Sabbatai, calling himself the "Messiah ben Joseph."
Jacob Joseph Frank (1726-1791), who claimed to be the reincarnation of King David and preached a synthesis of Christianity and Judaism.
Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902-1994), a Chabad Rabbi who tried to "prepare the way" for the Messiah; some followers believe him to be the Messiah.

Christian messiah claimants
See also: Second Coming and List of people who have claimed to be Jesus
Verses in the Bible tell that Jesus will come again in some fashion; various people have claimed to, in fact, be the second coming of Jesus. Others have been styled a new Messiah still under the umbrella of Christianity.

Simon Magus and Dositheos the Samaritan[5], mid first century
Montanus, who claimed to be the promised Paraclete, mid second century
Adalbert, a bishop who claimed miraculous powers circa 744; he was excommunicated by the Pope.
Tanchelm of Antwerp (ca. 1110), who violently opposed the sacrament and the Eucharist.
Ann Lee (1736-1784), a central figure to the Shakers who thought she "embodied all the perfections of God" in female form.
John Nichols Thom (1799-1838), a Cornish tax rebel.
Hong Xiuquan of China (1812-1864), claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus.
Bahá'u'lláh (1817-1892), born Shiite, he claimed to be the promised one of all religions, and founded the Bahá'í Faith.
George Baker (c. 1880 – September 10, 1965), also known as Father Divine, was an African American spiritual leader from about 1907 until his death.
Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (1892-1975), Messiah of the Rastafari movement. Never claimed himself to be messiah, but was proclaimed by Leonard Howell, amongst others.
Georges-Emest Roux (1903-1981), the "Christ of Montfavet," founder of the Eglise Chrétienne Universelle.
Sun Myung Moon (b. 1920), founder of the Unification Church ("Moonies"). Claims he is the Second Coming of Christ.[6][7]
Yahweh ben Yahweh (1935-2007), born as Hulon Mitchell, Jr., a black nationalist and separatist who created the Nation of Yahweh and allegedly orchestrated the murder of dozens of persons.
Iesu Matayoshi (b. 1944), in 1997 he established the World Economic Community Party based on his conviction that he is God and the Christ.
Jung Myung Seok (b. 1945), claims to be the Second Coming of Christ, founder of Providence Church, and fugitive wanted for rape among other crimes
Jose Luis de Jesus Miranda (b. 1946), a Puerto Rican preacher who has claimed to be "the Man Jesus Christ", who is indwelled with the same spirit that dwelled in Jesus. Founder of the Growing in grace" ministries.
Inri Cristo (b. 1948) of Curitiba, Brazil, a claimant to be the second Jesus.
Apollo C. Quiboloy (b. 1950) Claims that Jesus Christ is the Almighty Father. He is the Appointed Son (Rev. 21:7), Says salvation is now completed. He is called "His Appointed Son" by thousands in the Philippines and now in other countries.
David Icke (b. 1952), of Great Britain, has described himself as "the son of God," and a "channel for the Christ spirit."
David Koresh (Vernon Wayne Howell) (1959-1993), leader of the Branch Davidians.
Maria Devi Christos (b. 1960), founder of the Great White Brotherhood.
Sergei Torop (b. 1961) who started to call himself "Vissarion," founder of the Church of the Last Testament and the spiritual community Ecopolis Tiberkul in Southern Siberia.
David Shayler (b. 1965) ("Righteous Chav") who declared himself the Messiah in 2007.

Muslim messiah claimants
People claiming to be the Mahdi
Islamic tradition has a prophecy of the Mahdi, who will come alongside the return of Isa (Jesus).

Syed Mohammad Jaunpuri (1443-1505), who travelled Northeastern India; he influenced the Mahdavia and the Zikris.
Báb (1819-1850), who declared himself to be the promised Mahdi in Shiraz, Iran in 1844.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908) of Qadian, 'the Promised Messiah' return of Jesus as well as the 'Mahdi', founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. He preached that Jesus christ had survived crucifixion and died a natural death. Interestingly he was the only person to have claimed to be both, the promised return of Jesus as well as the promised Mahdi.
Muhammad Ahmad ("The Mad Mahdi") (1844-1885), who declared himself the Mahdi in 1881, defeated the Ottomans, and founded a short-lived empire in Sudan.
Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (1864-1920) of Somaliland, who engaged in military conflicts from 1900 to 1920.
Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990), a numerologist who analyzed the Qu'ran; claimed to be the "Messenger of the Covenant" and founded the "Submitters International" movement before being murdered.
Juhayman al-Otaibi (1936-1980), who seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca in November 1979 and declared his son-in-law the Mahdi.

Other/combination messiah claimants
This list features people who are said, either by themselves or their followers, to be some form of a messiah that do not easily fit into only Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

André Matsoua (1899-1942), Congolese founder of Amicale, proponents of which subsequently adopted him as Messiah.
World Teacher (unknown), claims to be the Maitreya and promised one of all religions; promoted by New Age activist Benjamin Creme and his organization, Share International.
Rael, leader of the Raelian Movement (born 30 September 1946); Rael took on his mission as Messiah in 1973 after a claimed meeting with an extraterrestrial being.
Nirmala Srivastava, guru and goddess of Sahaja Yoga, has proclaimed herself to be the Comforter promised by Jesus ie the incarnation of the Holy Ghost (Adi Shakti).[8][9]

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